new words 1.png

 

這是一件我一直想做, 但拖到這個月才有時間完成的事...

也就是把過去一年口譯工作中常遇到的英文新字作成一個清單

稱為"新"並不表示這些是大家不熟悉的冷門字, "新"指的是這些是
一般紙本字典可能沒有收錄, 或近3年新版字典才有收錄的熱門字

所謂英文新字何其多, 版主最近有些空閒時間, 從工作常遇到的新字中選出媒體也常使用者,
主要的目的是提供版主的口譯學生參考
 
請注意, 按以上定義, 本篇所謂新字顯然不包含各產業的專有名詞或術語,
翻譯一個專業會議所需準備的專有名詞動輒數十或上百個, 故不在本篇討論範圍

廢話了這麼多, 以下是我選的45個有趣的"新"字, 以英文字母A-Z順序排列:

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antiglobalization (n.) 反全球化
Opposition to the increase in the power of large international companies and institutions because of the bad effects on the economics of individual countries. 
例:
anti-globalization protests at the G8 summit
相關字:
capitalism 資本主義, global justice movement 全球正義運動, multi-national corporation 跨國企業, trade agreement 貿易協定, deregulated market 市場解禁

big tent (n.)  一個容許不同意見存在的組織或門派
A political philosophy that allows or seeks to attract diverse viewpoints.  
例:
The movement soon became a big tent under which many campaign groups gathered.

biofuel (n.) 生物燃料
Any fuel that is obtained from a renewable biological resource, especially from biomass
相關字: biomass生物(質)量, biodiesel生物柴油, biogas生物氣體 (沼氣), biochip生物晶片, biodiversity生物多樣性

biosecurity (n.) 生物安全
The protection of plants and animals against harm from disease or from human exploitation; the protection of humans against bioweapons, or from the accidental release of biohazards
比較: biosafety= protection from potentially harm from biological agents, such as infectious microbes or modified genes.

bleeding edge (n.) 未經實際檢驗的新技術
Something very current, or modern where there may actually be a hazard or risk in using it, such as with potentially unstable software. 
例: 
They are working at the bleeding edge of chip design.
比較:
cutting edge

blogosphere (n.) 部落格圈; 部落格空間 (部落格、部落格作者及其社群的統稱)
The totality of blogs, especially the unique jargons, cultures and shared interests created by their interconnection.
例:
the growing influence of the political blogosphere

body mass index (n.) 身體質量指數或簡稱BMI (一種衡量身體質量的標準, 計算公式=體重kg除以身高㎡, 正常指數應在19-23之間)
A statistical measure of the weight of a person scaled according to height, used to estimate if a person is underweight or overweight. BMI units are defined as kg / m
2


carbon footprint (n.) 碳足跡 (一個人或團體的碳排放量)
A measure of the amount of carbon dioxide produced by a person, organization or state in a given time

carbon neutral (n.) 碳中和 (表示個人或團體的活動不導致大氣碳量的增加)
A carbon neutral lifestyle, company, or activity does not cause an increase in the overall amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. 
相關字: carbon emission 碳排放, carbon offset 碳抵銷, carbon trading碳交易, carbon sink 碳匯, low-carbon community 低碳社區, greenhouse gases (GHGs)溫室氣體, industrialized nations 工業化國家,
Copenhagen Accord哥本哈根協議, United Nations Climate Change Conference (UNCCC) 聯合國氣候變遷會議

citizen journalism (n.) 公民新聞 (指一般市民或非專業人士使用最新的多元媒體進行新聞報導)
Independent reporting, often by amateurs on the scene of an event, and disseminated via new media.
相關字: participatory journalism參與式新聞,  street journalism街頭新聞

cloud computing (n.) 雲端運算 (透過網路將龐大的運算程序分拆, 交由多部伺服器透過搜尋與運算進行分析, 被視為Web 2.0後下一波科技產業的重要商機)
Computing in which services and storage are provided over the Internet
相關字:Internet-based computing 線上運算, remote computing 遠端運算

credit crunch (n) 信貸緊縮
A credit crunch (also known as a credit squeeze or credit crisis) is a reduction in the general availability of loans or a sudden tightening of the conditions required to obtain a loan from the banks.
相關字: overinflated assets 過度膨脹的資產, financial crisis 金融危機, foreclosure 取消贖回權, subprime loan 次級房貸,


fan fiction (n.) 同人小說  (漫畫,小說,電影迷利用故事中的人物角色或背景設定所進行的二次創作) Unofficial, unlicensed fictional stories about celebrities or fictional characters, written by fans.
相關: fan labour 由fans所從事的創作總稱,  fandom 影迷或科幻迷,  fanzine 
由fans出版的非正式雜誌, subculture 次文化 

file sharing (n.) 檔案共享 (指把檔案放到網路上供其他使用者下載, 常涉及IPR侵權問題)
The process of making files available to others to download from the Internet.
相關字: peer-to-peer sharing P2P分享, hyperlinked document 可點選下載之文件, file-hosting services 線上檔案空間, copyright infringement 侵權

food mile (n.) 食物里程 (意指食材從產地到餐桌上所經過的路途長度)
A reference to the environmental impact of the global food trade, especially when transported by air
相關字: local food movement 當地食物運動, seasonal produce 當季作物, farmer's maket 當地農作市場

future-proof (adj.), (v.) 指科技產品或概念不會於未來被淘汰
designed not to be obsolete in the future
例: future-proof website design; the company future-proofs its products
相關字: futurist 未來學家, futurology 未來學

GI or Glycemic Index (n.) 升糖指數 (指食物吃下後對血糖上升的影響, 為北美健身減重話題中常見字彙)
The glycemic index, glycaemic index, or GI is a measure of the effects of carbohydrates on blood sugar levels
相關字: blood sugar level 血糖, glucose 葡萄糖, obesity 肥胖, weight control 體重控制, low-carb diet 低澱粉飲食, Atkins diet 高蛋白質飲食

GMO or Genetically modified organism (n.) 基因改造生物
A genetically modified organism (GMO) or genetically engineered organism (GEO) is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques.
相關字: GM foods基因改造食品, GM crops基因改造作物, recombinant DNA基因重組, transgenic 基因轉殖的

greenwash (v.) 漂綠 (公司、政府或組織以某些行為或行動宣示自身對環保的付出, 但實際上卻可能反其道而行)
the practice of companies disingenuously spinning their products and policies as environmentally friendly, such as by presenting cost cuts as reductions in use of resources.
例句: green design, green technology, green architecture, green energy, green transportation

incentivize (v.) 提供獎勵, 引發動機
To provide incentives for; to encourage.
例: The US government seeks to incentivize home ownership through a favorable tax system.

infinity pool (n.) 無邊界泳池 
An infinity edge pool (also named zero edge or vanishing edge pool) is a swimming or reflecting pool which produces a visual effect of water extending to the horizon.
相關字: villa 獨棟別墅, exotic resorts 海外度假勝地, personal butler and cook 私人管家及廚子

junk science (n.) 垃圾科學 (指以精心設計的論點及實驗結果來迷惑或誤導不具科學背景的大眾)
A cluster of assertions, publications, and experts that have the appearance, but not the actuality, of a scientific specialty.
相關字: pathological science病理科學, voodoo science 巫毒科學, pseudoscience 偽科學

LOHAS (n.) 樂活
Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability (LOHAS) is a demographic term defining a particular market segment related to sustainable and ecological living.
相關字: socially responsible 負社會責任的, fair trade 公平交易, Natural capitalism 自然資本主義, sustainable business 永續經營, voluntary simplicity自願儉約

malware (n.) 惡意軟體
Malware, short for malicious software, is software designed to infiltrate a computer system without the owner's informed consent.
相關字: 病毒virus、蠕蟲worm、木馬trojan horse、間諜軟體spyware、廣告軟體adware

man bag (n.) 男用手提包 (越來越多北美男性不使用背包, 反而如女性改用手提包)
handbags are traditionally only carried by women. However, increasingly, younger men carry one as a smaller alternative to a backpack; such a handbag is sometimes termed a manbag or man purse.
相關: metrosexual or übersexual 都會型男, traditional masculine norms 傳統陽剛形象, stereotype 刻板印象

m-commerce (n.) 行動商務
Mobile Commerce (also known as M-Commerce or U-Commerce, owing to the ubiquitous nature of its services) is the ability to conduct commerce, using a mobile device and other emerging mobile equipment
相關字: mobile device 行動通訊裝置, mobile banking 行動金融服務, mobile marketing 行動行銷, smart phone 智慧手機

me-time (n.) 自我時間 (指繁忙之餘留給自己的時間, 用來做自己喜歡的事)
A period during which someone relaxes by doing something he/she enjoys
例: The day spa is very popular among women who want some me-time.
相關: work-life balance 工作與私生活間的平衡, time-poor vs. cash-rich

microfinance (n.) 微型金融, 微型信貸 (針對無法獲得一般銀行服務的窮人提供小額貸款、儲蓄、保險等金融服務。第一個創辦Grameen Bank提供窮人微額信貸的Muhammad Yunus2006年諾貝爾獎)
The provision of financial services to low-income clients, including consumers and the self-employed, who traditionally lack access to banking and related services.
相關: developing countries發展中國家, inclusive financial systems 包容性金融服務, social intervention 社會介入, poverty eradication 消除貧窮, low-income clients 低收入客戶

micromanage (n.) 微管理 (指一種大小事都要管的管理方式, 扼殺自由度與自主性)
To manage, direct, or control a person, group, or system to an unnecessary level of detail or precision.
例: The employees complained that their boss was micromanaging too much when she insisted that they account for their time in fifteen minute intervals.

netbook (n.) 小筆電, 上網筆電
An economical notebook computer, designed especially for using the Internet and e-mail
相關字: subnotebook, mini notebook 迷你筆電; Ultra Low-Cost Notebook (ULC notebook) 超低價筆電

off-grid
(adj.) 自給自足的
(獨立於外界水電力供給系統的生活方式)
living in a self-sufficient manner without reliance on one or more public utilities
例: an off-the-grid house, independent of traditional utility services

podcast (n.) 播客 (一系列的數位媒體文件, 形成一種網路上的廣播錄音節目, 大部分的情況下使用者以RSS來發布, 透過數位撥放器訂閱內容收聽廣播錄音節目)
An audio programme in a compressed digital format, delivered via an RSS feed over the Internet to a subscriber and designed for playback on computers or portable digital audio players, such as the iPod.
相關字: web casting 網路廣播, automated feed 自動饋送, episodic content 每集內容, off-line use 離線收聽  

probiotic (n.) 益生菌
A beneficial bacterium found in the intestinal tract of healthy mammals; dietary supplements of live bacteria or yeasts thought to be healthy for the host organism

push poll (n.) 導向性民意調查 (選舉中假借民意調查問一些別有用心的問題, 以散佈有關政敵的流言蜚語而影響選情)
A push poll is a political campaign technique in which an individual or organization attempts to influence or alter the view of respondents under the guise of conducting a poll.

renewables or renewable energy (n.) 可再生能源
Something that can be renewed, but especially a renewable source of energy
相關字: wind power 風力, hydropower 水力發電, solar power 太陽能, biofuel 生物燃料, geothermal energy地熱發電, photovoltaic 太陽光電, ethanol 乙醇, solar cell 太陽能電池, fuel cell 燃料電池

size zero (n.) 零號服飾; 穿零號的人
The smallest size of women's clothing; A woman with a very low body mass index, especially such a fashion model
例: Health professionals have voiced concerns about the trend for "size zero" fashion models.
相關字: vanity sizing 虛榮尺寸, size inflation 尺寸誇大, anorexia 厭食症, eating disorder 飲食失調, body image 身體形象

skill set (n.) 技能組合  The set of a person's skills.
例: Translation and Interpretation are two different professions and each requires a specific skillset.
比較: ability, competence, capability

slow food (n.) 慢食 (回歸傳統烹飪方法, 重視有機食物, 食用時細嚼慢嚥)
A movement originating in Italy that emphasizes the local and regional production of food, especially focusing on the many traditions of food present throughout the world.

相關字: organic farming 有機耕種, free range 放養, locally grown food當地栽種的食物, seed banks 種子銀行, heirloom varieties 傳家品種, small-scale processing 小規模製造, ethical consumerism 良知消費, monoculture 單一栽培, commercial agribusiness 大型農業企業

social networking (n.) 社會網絡 (尤其指在網路虛擬世界中進行社交活動)
Using social contacts to network; using internet's network groups (such as Facebook and Twitter) to network and communicate using shared interests, related skills, or goegraphical location between consumers and businesses.
相關字: social networking websites 社會網絡網站, social bookmarking 社會書籤, unfriend or defriend 從好友名單中刪除

superfood (n.) 超級食物 (尤指能對抗疾病、增進健康的食物如花椰菜、藍莓等) 
A term sometimes used to describe food with high phytonutrient content that some may believe confers health benefits as a result.
相關字: phytonutrients 植物營養素, superfruit 超級水果, antioxidant 抗氧化物質, dietary fiber 食物纖維

tweet (n.) 推訊 (在Twitter上發表簡短訊息)
a short, high-pitched sound made by a small bird; (also tweeter) a message sent using the Tweeter social netwoking service
相關字: Twitter 推特, microblogging 微網誌, follower 訂閱者, privacy setting 隱私設定, Plurk 撲浪, Facebook 臉書, MySpace, LinkedIn, XING, Flickr福利客

umami (n.) 鮮味 (不屬於酸甜苦辣的一種食物甘味)
A taste- neither sweet, sour, bitter, or salty- sensed by specialized receptor cells present on the human tongue.

Web 2.0 (n.) 網路2.0
The second generation of the World Wide Web, especially the movement away from static webpages to dynamic and shareable content and social networking.
相關字: web-enabled, interactive information sharing 互動資訊分享, interoperability 互通性, user-centered design 使用者為主的設計, web-based collaboration 線上共同創作

wiggle room (n.) 迴旋餘地
flexibility of interpretation or of options
例: The buyer still has some wiggle room when the deal is under contract.

wiki
(n.) 一種在網路上開放、可供多人共同創作的網站 (如Wikipedia)
A website that allows the easy creation and editing of any number of interlinked web pages via a web browser
相關字: publicly editable可公開編輯, trustworthiness 可信度, collaborative websites/editing 共同創作式網站/創作, malicious content 惡意內容

X factor (n.)  X因素
a special quality, especially one that is essential for success and is difficult to describe. 
例: She certainly has the X factor that all great singers have. 

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再次強調這些字稱為"新"並不表示是大家不熟悉的冷門字, "新"指的是這些字可能在最近新版的字典中才有收錄, 而且英文媒體也常使用的熱門字

對有心學習口譯者來說, 這些字多少反映了時下產業的走向與熱門議題 (當然也反映了版主常作口譯的會議類型), 如網路Web 2.0現象, social networking網站, 環保節能, 全球暖化, 行動通訊, 與金融風暴下大眾轉而對身心平衡之追求

一轉眼竟然打了這麼多字, 連我自己也嚇一跳,
別人說我是個很囉唆的人, 看來想賴都賴不掉了

這下頭昏眼花腰酸背痛的症狀又要復發了, 如果有typo或錯誤之處還請大家指正

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